Agronomy and Horticulture, Department of



Document Type


Date of this Version



The Author(s) 2019


(2019) 9:16695 |


Common waterhemp emerges throughout the crop growing season in the Midwestern United States, and as a result, the seedlings are exposed to a wide range of temperature regimes. Typically, 2,4-D is used in the Midwest to control winter annual broad-leaf weeds before planting soybean and in an early post-emergence application in corn and sorghum; however, the evolution of 2,4-D-resistant common waterhemp in several Midwestern states may limit the use of 2.4-D for controlling this problem weed. Moreover, temperature is one of the crucial factors affecting weed control efficacy of 2,4-D. This research investigated the effect of temperature on efficacy of 2,4-D to control 2,4-D susceptible (WHS) and -resistant (WHR) common waterhemp. Do se-response of WHS and WHR to 2,4-D was assessed at two temperature regimes, high (HT; 34/20 °C, d/n) and low (LT; 24/10 °C, d/n). Whole plant dose response study indicated an increased level of 2,4-D resistance in WHR at HT compared to LT. Additional investigation of the physiological mechanism of this response indicated that both WHS and WHR common waterhemp plants rapidly metabolized 14C 2,4-D at HT compared to LT. In conclusion, a rapid metabolism of 2,4-D conferred increased level of resistance to 2,4-D in WHR at HT. Therefore, application of 2,4-D when temperatures are cooler can improve control of 2,4-D resistant common waterhemp.