Date of this Version
Agronomy 2020, 10, 772; doi:10.3390/agronomy10060772
The commercial launch of dicamba‐tolerant (DT) crops has resulted in increased dicamba usage and a high number of dicamba off‐target movement complaints on sensitive soybeans (Glycine max L.). Dicamba is a synthetic auxin and low dosages as 0.028 g ae ha−1 can induce injury on sensitive soybean. Tank contamination has been identified as one of the sources for unintended sensitive crop exposure. The labels of new dicamba formulations require a triple rinse cleanout procedure following applications. Cleanout efficacy might vary based on the sprayer type and procedure followed. This study was performed to quantify dicamba retention in commercial sprayers and assess the risk for crop injury from remaining contaminants. The results indicate triple rinse with water was comparable to cleanout procedures utilizing ammonium, commercial tank cleaners, and glyphosate in rinses. Dicamba contaminants in final rinsates resulted in <15% visual injury and no yield response when applied to sensitive soybeans at R1 stage. A survey of 25 agricultural sprayers demonstrated a cleanout efficacy of 99.996% by triple rinsing with water following applications of dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1, with concentrations of less than 1 ug mL−1 detected rinsates from the fourth rinse. A dose response experiment predicted dosages causing 5% visual injury and the yield losses were 0.1185 and 2.8525 g ae ha−1. However, symptomology was observed for all tested dosages, including the rate as low as 0.03 g ae ha−1. The results from this study suggest triple rinsing with sufficient amount of water (≥10% of tank volume) is adequate for the removal of dicamba residues from sprayers to avoid sensitive soybean damage. This study can provide producers with confidence in cleanout procedures following dicamba applications, and aid in minimizing risk for off‐target movement through tank contamination.