Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Plant Biotechnology Journal (2022) 20, pp. 944–963

doi: 10.1111/pbi.13775


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License


Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) is being domesticated as a winter annual oilseed crop capable of improving ecosystems and intensifying agricultural productivity without increasing land use. It is a selfing diploid with a short life cycle and is amenable to genetic manipulations, making it an accessible field-based model species for genetics and epigenetics. The availability of a high-quality reference genome is vital for understanding pennycress physiology and for clarifying its evolutionary history within the Brassicaceae. Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of var. MN106-Ref with improved gene annotation and use it to investigate gene structure differences between two accessions (MN108 and Spring32-10) that are highly amenable to genetic transformation. We describe non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes and transposable elements, and highlight tissue-specific expression and methylation patterns. Resequencing of forty wild accessions provided insights into genome-wide genetic variation, and QTL regions were identified for a seedling colour phenotype. Altogether, these data will serve as a tool for pennycress improvement in general and for translational research across the Brassicaceae.