Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Schwartz-Lazaro LM, Shergill LS, Evans JA, Bagavathiannan MV, Beam SC, Bish MD, Bond JA, Bradley KW, Curran WS, Davis AS, Everman WJ, Flessner ML, Haring SC, Jordan NR, Korres NE, Lindquist JL, Norsworthy JK, Sanders TL, Steckel LE, VanGessel MJ, Young B, Mirsky SB (2021) Seedshattering phenology at soybean harvest of economically important weeds in multiple regions of the United States. Part 1: Broadleaf species. Weed Sci. 69: 95–103. doi: 10.1017/ wsc.2020.80


America. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence


Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.