Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Schwartz-Lazaro LM, Shergill LS, Evans JA, Bagavathiannan MV, Beam SC, Bish MD, Bond JA, Bradley KW, Curran WS, Davis AS, Everman WJ, Flessner ML, Haring SC, Jordan NR, Korres NE, Lindquist JL, Norsworthy JK, Sanders TL, Steckel LE, VanGessel MJ, Young B, Mirsky SB (2021) Seedshattering phenology at soybean harvest of economically important weeds in multiple regions of the United States. Part 2: Grass species. Weed Sci. 69: 104–110. doi: 10.1017/ wsc.2020.79


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence


Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.