Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Scientifc Reports | (2022) 12:21822 |


Open access.


In this study, the inheritance of 2,4-D resistance in a multiple herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth (KCTR) was investigated. Direct and reciprocal crosses were performed using 2,4-D-resistant KCTR and susceptible KSS plants to generate F1 progenies. 2,4-D dose–response assays were conducted to evaluate the response of progenies from each F1 family along with KCTR and KSS plants in controlled environmental growth chambers. Additionally, 2,4-D-resistant male and female plants from each of the F1 families were used in pairwise crosses to generate pseudo-F2 families. Segregation (resistance or susceptibility) of progenies from the F2 families in response to a discriminatory rate of 2,4-D (i.e., 560 g ae ha−1) was evaluated. Dose–response analysis of F1 progenies derived from direct and reciprocal crosses suggested that the 2,4-D resistance in KCTR is a nuclear trait. Chi-square analyses of F2 segregation data implied that 2,4-D resistance in KCTR is controlled by multiple gene(s). Overall, our data suggest that the 2,4-D resistance in KCTR Palmer amaranth is a nuclear inherited trait controlled by multiple genes. Such resistance can spread both via pollen or seed-mediated gene flow. In future, efforts will be directed towards identifying genes mediating 2,4-D resistance in KCTR population.