Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Published in Crop Science (1971) 11: 731-734.


In the improvement of forage crop varieties knowledge of the extent of cross-fertilization is of value for (1) determining the extent and randomness of crossing in breeding procedures, (2) estimating varietal changes due to contamination and mechanical mixtures, and (3) evaluating effects of cross-fertilization in the development and production of synthetic and hybrid combinations. Genetic markers can aid greatly in the evaluation of cross·fertilization, and thus in the development and production of new varieties. Ideally, markers should be distinctive and readily detected in the seedling stage, conditioned by a single dominant gene with complete penetrance, and have no adverse effects on plant growth, zygote viability, or randomness of cross-pollination.