Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Journal of Cereal Science 54 (2011) pp. 37-43; doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2011.02.008


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


Physico-chemical properties of bread baked by partially replacing normal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour (15, 30, and 45%) with two hard waxy wheat flours were investigated. Substitution with waxy wheat flour resulted in higher loaf volume and softer loaves. However, substitution at >30% resulted in excessive post-bake shrinkage and a ‘key-hole’ shape with an open crumb structure. Bread crumb microstructure indicated a loss of starch granule rigidity and fusing of starch granules. The cells in the interior of the bread did not become gas-continuous and as a result, shrunk as the loaf cooled. Soluble starch content was significantly higher in bread crumb containing waxy wheat flour than in control bread. Debranching studies indicated that the soluble starch in bread made with 30e45% hard waxy wheat flour was mostly amylopectin. Incorporation of waxy wheat flour resulted in softer bread immediately after baking but did not retard staling upon storage.