Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Published in Mycorrhiza 23 (2013), pp. 573–584; doi: 10.1007/s00572-013-0498-7


Copyright © 2013 Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg. Used by permission.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in vascular plant roots is an ancient mutualistic interaction that evolved with land plants. More recently evolved root mutualisms have recruited components of the AM signaling pathway as identified with molecular approaches in model legume research. Earlier we reported that the reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc) mutation of tomato mapped to chromosome 8. Here we report additional functional characterization of the rmc mutation using genotype grafts and proteomic and transcriptomic analyses. Our results led to identification of the precise genome location of the Rmc locus from which we identified the mutation by sequencing. The rmc phenotype results from a deletion that disrupts five predicted gene sequences, one of which has close sequence match to the CYCLOPS/IPD3 gene identified in legumes as an essential intracellular regulator of both AM and rhizobial symbioses. Identification of two other genes not located at the rmc locus but with altered expression in the rmc genotype is also described. Possible roles of the other four disrupted genes in the deleted region are discussed. Our results support the identification of CYCLOPS/IPD3 in legumes and rice as a key gene required for AM symbiosis. The extensive characterization of rmc in comparison with its ‘parent’ 76R, which has a normal mycorrhizal phenotype, has validated these lines as an important comparative model for glasshouse and field studies of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants with respect to plant competition and microbial interactions with vascular plant roots.

Includes supplementary material.