Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction


Date of this Version



International High Performance Buildings Conference. Paper 87.


International High Performance Buildings Conference at Purdue, July 16-19, 2012


This paper presents how a hydraulic system can be properly modeled for hydraulic balancing, knowledge of flow distribution, coupled simulation, and evaluation of control, etc. It focuses on water-based heating and cooling systems, which generally have high energy efficiency in design but could perform poorly in reality due to the undersensing condition and strong thermal-hydraulic coupling. The study introduces the motivation, presents the simplified modeling methodology, and illustrates the model and simulating structure. A preliminary evaluation of the method is conducted with two simple simulations. The proposed “node-branch-state” modeling approach could be easily modified, expanded and integrated into a detailed thermal model. The paper concludes with some discussions on future work.