Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction


Date of this Version



Infrastructures 2020, 5, 49; doi:10.3390/infrastructures5060049


© 2020 by the authors.


This article presents the latest improvements in a recently developed nondestructive testing (NDT) approach for early detection of various flaws (corrosion, delamination, and concrete cracking) in reinforced concrete (RC) bridge decks. The proposed method involves the use of internal steel reinforcement as a wave guide for transmitting ultrasonic waves through the system and the measurement of leaked energy from the surface of the concrete. This paper builds upon the progress made in the previously published phases of the project and aims to further explore the capabilities and practicality of the proposed NDT method. Specifically, the limits of propagation distance, effect of bidirectional reinforcement, methods of attachment and coupling of the sensors to the reinforcement and concrete, and suggestions for optimal sensor arrays are discussed in this paper based on the findings from the most recent laboratory tests and pilot field tests. The results show that with careful placement of sensors and data interpretation, early stages of localized corrosion and delamination can be detected, even when bidirectional and multiple layers of reinforcement are present. For field applications, an angled seat made of fast-setting Hydrocal gypsum cement is recommended, and it is projected that the optimal angle of attachment is 33 degrees or less from the vertical axis.