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Thesis (M.A.)—University of Nebraska—Lincoln, 1949. Department of Psychology.


Copyright 1949, the author. Used by permission.


Twelve boys and twelve girls from the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade of two of the Lincoln Public Schools were the subjects of this experiment. The selection of the subjects was made on the basis of the Otis Quick-Scoring group intelligence test, IQ scores ranging from seventy to ninety. A similar study was conducted at the same time by the same experimenters using children whose IQs ranged from ninety to one hundred-ten. Each child was given a Revised Standford-Binet individual test, and those of the subnormal group who did not fall within the limits set previously were discarded.

In the two experimental sessions, Day 1 and Day 2, each child was presented with six tasks which represented three areas of the child’s experience: home, school, and play. Each child was asked to give two levels of expectations for each of the six tasks. After each day, the child was asked to draw a man.

The subjects were divided into three groups: Group A, whose first report on Day 1 was success; Group B, whose first report on Day 1 was failure; and Group C, which received no reports of success or failure. A prearranged sequence of scores and reports were used.

The final data (performance and level of expectation), used for statistical analysis, was in terms of D-scores and analyzed by use analysis of variance and some tests of significance.

Advisor: Katharine M. Maurer