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Published in Birds of the Great Plains: Breeding Species and Their Distribution, New Expanded Edition, by Paul A. Johnsgard (UNL-Lincoln Libraries, 2009). Copyright © 1979, 2009 Paul A. Johnsgard.


Partly on the basis of the availability of relatively complete bird lists available for the areas, I have included here forty-four state and federal parks, refuges, and other sanctuaries located within the region covered by this book. Nearly all the national wildlife refuges are included, except a number of smaller refuges for which bird lists are not available. Further, a group of four North Dakota national wildlife refuges in the Souris Valley is collectively considered in a "Souris Loop" category. In the discussion that follows and the associated list of summer birds, the localities are grouped by states, and the states are organized in a general north-to-south sequence. The 236 species included in the associated bird list (Appendix B) are only those that are known to breed' or to have bred in the region. Accidental species, introduced "pest species," and species not known to breed in the region though occasionally summering within it are excluded from the list.

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