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Published in Molecular Biology and Evolution 25:4 (April 2008), pp. 655-663. Copyright © 2008 Timothy Paape, Boris Igic, Stacey D. Smith, Richard Olmstead, Lynn Bohs, and Joshua R. Kohn. Published for Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution by Oxford University Press. Used by permission. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msn016.


Balancing selection preserves variation at the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) of flowering plants for tens of millions of years, making it possible to detect demographic events that occurred prior to the origin of extant species. In contrast to other Solanaceae examined, SI species in the sister genera Physalis and Witherinigia share restricted variation at the S-locus. This restriction is indicative of an ancient bottleneck that occurred in a common ancestor. We sequenced 14 S-alleles from the subtribe Iochrominae, a group that is sister to the clade containing Physalis and Witherinigia. At least 6 ancient S-allele lineages are represented among these alleles, demonstrating that the Iochrominae taxa do not share the restriction in S-locus diversity. Therefore, the bottleneck occurred after the divergence of the Iochrominae from the lineage leading to the most recent common ancestor of Physalis and Witherinigia. Using cpDNA sequences, 3 fossil dates, and a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock approach, the crown group of Solanaceae was estimated to be 51 Myr old and the restriction of variation at the S-locus occurred 14.0-18.4 Myr before present. These results confirm the great age of polymorphism at the S-locus and the utility of loci under balancing selection for deep historical inference.

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