Date of this Version
Cancer Biol Ther. 2010 June 15; 9(12): 1065–1078.
Nm23-H1 is a well-known tumor metastasis suppressor, which functions as a nucleoside-diphosphate kinase converting nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside triphosphates with an expense of ATP. It regulates a variety of cellular activities, including proliferation, development, migration and differentiation known to be modulated by a series of complex signaling pathway. Few studies have addressed the mechanistic action of Nm23-H1 in the context of these cellular processes. To determine the downstream pathways modulated by Nm23-H1, we expressed Nm23-H1 in a Burkitt lymphoma derived B-cell line BJAB and performed pathway specific microarray analysis. The genes with significant changes in expression patterns were clustered in groups which are responsible for regulating cell cycle, p53 activities and apoptosis. We found a general reduction of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (anti proliferation), and upregulation of apoptotic genes which included caspase 3, 9 and Bcl-x. Nm23-H1 was also found to upregulate p53 and downregulate p21 expression. A number of these genes were validated by real time PCR and results from promoter assays indicated that Nm23-H1 expression downregulated cyclin D1 in a dose responsive manner. Further, we show that Nm23-H1 forms a complex with the cellular transcription factor AP1 to modulate cyclin D1 expression levels. BJAB cells expressing Nm23-H1 showed reduced proliferation rate and were susceptible to increased apoptosis which may in part be due to a direct interaction between Nm23-H1 and p53. These results suggest that Nm23-H1 may have a role in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in human B-cells.