Date of this Version
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (1988) 75(4): 1,480-1,498.
The structure and some developmental aspects of the cupules of 22 species of paleotropical Castanopsis are discussed and illustrated. Some species have cupules massively invested with strong, sharp spines, but others are less spiny, and some are nearly smooth. Most cupular armament results from spines produced axillary to the valvular scales and basally adnate to them. Columns of scales straddling the sutures between the cupular valves do not become spines, but the numerous scales elsewhere on the valves become somewhat spiny with age. Dehiscence in the spiny-valved species is mostly along the sutures. The smooth cupules of some species have scales in their early stages, but cupular expansion separates and tears them; such species are often indehiscent or only irregularly dehiscent and usually show nearly complete adnation of the cupule to the nut.