Papers in the Biological Sciences


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Yalcin, D.; Bennett, S.J.; Sheehan, J.; Trauth, A.J.; Tso, F.Y.; West, J.T.; Hagensee, M.E.; Ramsay, A.J.;Wood, C. Longitudinal Variations in Antibody Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike Epitopes upon Serial Vaccinations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 7292. https://


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The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacted healthcare, the workforce, and worldwide socioeconomics. Multi-dose mono- or bivalent mRNA vaccine regimens have shown high efficacy in protection against SARSCoV- 2 and its emerging variants with varying degrees of efficacy. Amino acid changes, primarily in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), result in selection for viral infectivity, disease severity, and immune evasion. Therefore, many studies have centered around neutralizing antibodies that target the RBD and their generation achieved through infection or vaccination. Here, we conducted a unique longitudinal study, analyzing the effects of a three-dose mRNA vaccine regimen exclusively using the monovalent BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine, systematically administered to nine previously uninfected (naïve) individuals. We compare changes in humoral antibody responses across the entire SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) using a high-throughput phage display technique (VirScan). Our data demonstrate that two doses of vaccination alone can achieve the broadest and highest magnitudes of anti-S response. Moreover, we present evidence of novel highly boosted non-RBD epitopes that strongly correlate with neutralization and recapitulate independent findings. These vaccine-boosted epitopes could facilitate multi-valent vaccine development and drug discovery.

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