Papers in the Biological Sciences


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Published in The Journal of Arachnology 24: 186-200, 1996. Copyright © American Arachnological Society. Used by permission.


The temporal patterns of insertion of male palps, expansion of the hematodocha and duration of copulation are reported for 10 species of Schizocosa Chamberlin 1904, three species of Rabidosa Roewer 1955, one species of Gladicosa Brady 1986, one species of Hogna Simon 1885, two species of Isohogna Roewer 1960, one species of Trochosa C.L. Koch 1848, one species of Geolycosa Montgomery 1904, two species of Arctosn C.L. Koch 1848, three species of Alopecosa Simon 1885 and six species of Pardosa C.L. Koch 1847. In all species of Schizocosa examined so far, males showed a pattern composed of a series of insertions with one palp followed by a switch to the opposite side and a separate series of insertions with the other palp. During each insertion there was a single expansion of the hematodocha. These copulations generally lasted from 1-4 hours. Males of Gladicosa bellamyi (Gertsch & Wallace 1937) and Hogna georgicola (Walckenaer 1837) likewise showed a series of insertions on one side followed by insertions on the other side, with a single expansion of the hematodocha with each insertion. Males of Arctosa littoralis (Hentz 1844), A. sanctaerosae Gertsch & Wallace 1935 and Geolycosa rogersi Wallace 1942 each copulated by alternating palps with a single insertion and single expansion of the hematodocha. The alternating pattern of insertions was also seen in Rabidosa rabida (Walckenaer 1837), R. hentzi (Banks 1904) and R. punctulata (Hentz 1844). lsohogna lenta (Hentz 1844) (a single individual) alternated between multiple expansions of the hematodocha during one insertion and alternating sides with a single insertion and expansion per side. A second member of Isohogna showed a single insertion on one side with multiple expansions of the hematodocha. Comparisons with published descriptions of copulatory pattern suggest that Schizocosa and Trochosa Koch 1848 may form a mono-phyletic clade in the "Trochosa group" of the Lycosinae. The copulations that involved multiple insertions of the male's palp on one side with a single expansion per insertion were long copulations (1-4 hours). This may provide for multiple opportunities of in copula courtship. Arctosa copulations were very short (18-46 sec), while the Geolycosa copulations were relatively short (5-7 min). Thus, the copulations of the burrowing spiders were much shorter than the nonburrowing spiders.