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A rainfall simulator was used to measure the effects of varying rates of sorghum and soybean residue on runoff and erosion. In general, increased surface cover caused reduced runoff, sediment concentration and soil loss. Substantial reductions in erosion resulted from the use of small amounts of crop residue. Regression equations were obtained which related surface cover to residue mass. Equations describing relative runoff, sediment concentration and soil loss as a function of surface cover were also developed. Runoff, sediment concentration and soil loss were all found to be highly correlated to surface cover.