Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Published in Journal of Food Engineering 108 (2012), pp. 480–492; doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.08.003 Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Used by permission.


Shell eggs must be cooled quickly after laying for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) growth. To fulfill a research need identified by Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict the temperature of eggs placed on a tray (6 rows × 5 columns) under forced air cooling. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved along with standard k-ε turbulence model using PHOENICS software. The model was validated by conducting experiments in a wind tunnel at various air temperatures (7–11 °C) and velocities (0.3– 0.7 m/s). Root mean square error for predicting yolk temperatures was within 1 °C. Finally, the CFD model was integrated with a microbial growth model to estimate the risk of SE growth during cooling. This model can be incorporated into the FSIS risk assessment model for more accurate estimation of SE risk in shell eggs.