Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Djaman, K., V. Sharma, D.R. Rudnick, K. Koudahe, S. Irmak, K.A. Amouzou, and J.M. Sogbedji. 2017. Spatial and temporal variation in precipitation in Togo. International Journal of Hydrology. 1(4): 00019.


© 2017 Djaman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License


Precipitation is one of the important variables in hydrological cycle and has important application in both irrigated and rainfed agricultural crop production. Better understanding of spatio-temporal variability of precipitation across Togo is important and useful for water users and most agricultural activities. Thus, the objective this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variation in monthly and annual precipitation across Togo for the period of 1961-2001. Monthly precipitation data was provided by the national direction of meteorology. The performed analysis revealed a decline in annual total precipitation across almost all agro-ecological zones in Togo with the Maritime Region revealed as the driest. Kouma-Konda received the greatest 40 year average annual precipitation in the country with 1714mm. June was the wettest month across Togo. The greatest coefficient of variation (82%) in monthly precipitation was registered in January for the study period. Water management implications could be generated from this study, especially for rural and urban agricultural production zones. Mann Kendall’s test was used to understand the temporal variation in precipitation over the period of 40 years. Decreasing trends in annual precipitation are likely to have significant impacts across Togo, where rainfed agriculture is widely practiced. On the other hand, persistent and progressive precipitation deficits are likely to cause recurrent drought and destroy plant cover, increase evapotranspiration, increase surface albedo and, affect other aspects of the water and energy balance.