Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version

October 2003


Reprinted from Livestock and Poultry Environmental Stewardship curriculum, fact sheet authored by Rick Koelsch, University of Nebraska, courtesy of MidWest Plan Service, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3080 and your land-grant universities, Copyright © 2003.


New U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules that took effect April 14, 2003 indicate that animal feeding operations (AFOs) can be defined as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and required to obtain a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit from the EPA or a designated state permitting authority. The likelihood of an AFO being classified as a CAFO will depend, in large part, on whether that operation is considered to be large, medium, or small.