Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version

August 2006


Paper presented at Animal Agriculture and the Environment: National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management White Papers. J. M. Rice, D. F. Caldwell, F. J. Humenik, eds. 2006. St. Joseph, Michigan: ASABE. Pub. Number 913C0306. Copyright © 2006 D. Jones, R. Koelsch, S. Mukhtar, R. Sheffield, and J. Worley.


This paper is a summary of what is known scientifically about the closure of earthen manure structures without artificial liners, including lagoons, storage basins, and runoff holding ponds, and what needs to be examined further to increase our understanding of the dynamics of closing them in an environmentally safe manner. This information should be useful as a guide for state regulatory agencies considering rules for closure and for academicians and consultants who work with livestock production facilities.