Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Published in Pp. 132-143 in the Ninth International Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes
Proceedings of the 12-15 October 2003 Symposium (Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina USA), Publication Date 12 October 2003.
ASAE Publication Number 701P1203, ed. Robert T. Burns.


Vegetative systems have long been studied and evaluated as alternatives to conventional storage, treatment, and land application systems. This paper discusses the application of vegetative systems, primarily constructed wetlands, as a runoff treatment technology for small livestock operations. The approach used for two small dairies and one beef cattle feedlot is discussed. Cost data for these operations is included as well as nutrient reduction performance results from a three year sampling period for the KS Dairy.