Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Presented at Governor's Ethanol Coalition Meeting, 28 April 2008. Copyright 2008 K. Cassman & A. Liska.


• Corn ethanol will be first to test the newly developed LCFS assessment methods; substantial amounts of other biofuels will come several years later

• Accurate valuation of direct-effect GHG emissions from corn ethanol is the foundation of the LCFS process; these affects vary with ethanol biorefinery type and corn feedstock supply

• Different reference GHG emissions values are needed for each major class of ethanol plants

• The BESS model provides the most up-to-date, scientifically sound estimate of corn-ethanol GHG emissions; can BESS and GREET reach agreement?

• Certification and compliance tools are also needed