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Research is essential for improvement in teaching and learning economics. William E. Becker et al. (1991) called for new research on the relative merits of multiple-choice and essay tests, on the lasting effects of course work in economics, and on the effects of instructors, instructional techniques, and new technologies on student learning. To respond to the call, the Committee on Economic Education (CEE) of the American Economic Association recruited Robin Bartlett, William Becker, W. Lee Hansen, Peter Kennedy, and the authors to organize a conference that would jump-start new research projects.