Brain, Biology and Behavior, Center for



Jennifer Parent-Nichols,

Date of this Version


Document Type



SAGE Open Nursing Volume 6: 1–10


(c) The Author(s) 2020

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC:


Background: It is essential to increase the knowledge base of teachers involved in facilitating return to learning in middle school students following a concussion. However, the best method to enhance the transfer of learning for teachers remains to be elucidated. Application of Adult Learning Theory (ALT) is a plausible solution to this problem. Purpose: The purpose of this randomized post-test study was to examine the effects of ALTon the transfer of learning in teachers who work with individuals with concussion. Methods: A convenience sample of 169 teachers at four middle schools were randomized to receive an in-service regarding concussion management either in ALT or traditional lecture format. Vignettes approximating classroom practice evaluated learning transfer. Results: one-way between subjects ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the methods of educational delivery on group assessment scores (p¼.22). Additionally, a regression analysis did not identify any demographic variables that predicted learning transfer (p¼.65). A statistically significant difference existed for four questions (1, 4, 7, 25) between the groups (p¼.03, .02, .01, .00, respectively). These vignettes were those that assessed information that was likely novel to the learner. Discussion: The current study demonstrated that ALT applied to teacher in-service did not impact transfer of learning immediately post training compared to a traditional lecture format. Future research should continue to examine the effects of various educational strategies to enhance learning transfer for teachers managing students in the classroom after concussion.