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Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), or synchrophasors, are rapidly being deployed in the smart grid with the goal of measuring phasor quantities concurrently from wide area distribution substations. By utilizing GPS receivers, PMUs can take a wide area snapshot of power systems. Thus, the possibility of blackouts in the smart grid, the next generation power grid, will be reduced. As the main enabler of Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS), PMUs transmit measured values to Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) by the synchrophasor standard IEEE C37.118. IEC 61850 and IEC 62351 are the communication protocols for the substation automation system and the security standard for the communication protocol of IEC 61850, respectively. According to the aforementioned communication and security protocols, as well as the implementation constraints of different platforms, HMAC-SHA1 was suggested by the TC 57 WG group in October 2009. The hash-based Message Authentication Code (MAC) is an algorithm for verifying both message integrity and authentication by using an iterative hash function and a supplied secret key. There are a variety of security attacks on the PMU communications infrastructure. Timing Side Channel Attack (SCA) is one of these possible attacks. In this thesis, timing side channel vulnerability against execution time of the HMAC-SHA1 authentication algorithm is studied. Both linear and negative binomial regression are used to model some security features of the stored key, e.g., its length and Hamming weight. The goal is to reveal secret-related information based on leakage models. The results would mitigate the cryptanalysis process of an attacker.
Adviser: Yi Qian