Department of Educational Administration


Date of this Version



Published in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 38:4 (December 2016), pp. 757–782; doi: 10.3102/0162373716675726


Copyright © 2016 American Educational Research Association; published by Sage. Used by permission.


Despite decades of research indicating classrooms shape student engagement, learning, and development, there is a dearth of empirically grounded research focusing specifically on observed classroom engagement as a predictor of student outcomes in community colleges. This article describes the development of a qualitatively grounded, quantitative classroom-level engagement measurement protocol designed for this purpose. We provide evidence for the measure’s validity and reliability via confirmatory factor analyses and descriptive analyses that offer a snapshot of the information this measure can generate. Furthermore, we examine a two-level structural equation regression model that uses student survey data from students nested in observed classrooms. We then review our results in light of the relevance this measure has for researchers and educators in community colleges.