Department of Educational Administration


Document Type


Date of this Version



Published in Community College Journal of Research and Practice 42:7-8 (2018), pp 569–573.

doi 10.1080/10668926.2018.1429962


Copyright © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Used by permission.


Rates of student success—four-year transfer, degree, and certificate completion— are frequently discussed. Less frequent, however, are opportunities to reflect on how these outcomes are measured. In this paper, I reflect on how rates of success—specifically for men of color—are calculated based on two California institutional accountability frameworks. First, I compared measures of success for men of color using the methodologies outlined by each framework. Secondly, I explored enrollment data of men of color who did not transfer or complete a degree or certificate after six years, those who would not be counted by either framework. Findings indicate that some students who did not complete or transfer after six years were enrolled for several consecutive terms, demonstrating what I posit is an indicator of student resilience.