Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Stem Cell Reports, Vol. 11, 454–469, August 14, 2018


Copyright 2018 The Authors.

Open access


Endothelial cells (ECs) are of great value for cell therapy, tissue engineering, and drug discovery. Obtaining high-quantity and -quality ECs remains very challenging. Here, we report a method for the scalable manufacturing of ECs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). hPSCs are expanded and differentiated into ECs in a 3D thermoreversible PNIPAAm-PEG hydrogel. The hydrogel protects cells from hydrodynamic stresses in the culture vessel and prevents cells from excessive agglomeration, leading to high-culture efficiency including high-viability (>90%), high-purity (>80%), and high-volumetric yield (2.0 x 107 cells/mL). These ECs (i.e., 3D-ECs) had similar properties as ECs made using 2D culture systems (i.e., 2D-ECs). Genome-wide gene expression analysis showed that 3D-ECs had higher expression of genes related to vasculature development, extracellular matrix, and glycolysis, while 2D-ECs had higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation.