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Current helium-3 tube based thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in achieving simultaneously high efficiency and low voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three-dimensional silicon p-i-n diode pillar array filled with boron-10 these constraints can be overcome. The fabricated pillar structured detector reported here is composed of 2 μm diameter silicon pillars with a 4 μm pitch and height of 12 μm. A thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3+/−0.6% and a neutron-to-gamma discrimination of 105 at 2 V reverse bias were measured for this detector. When scaled to larger aspect ratio, a high efficiency device is possible.