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CYP83B1 from Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified as the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of glucosinolates. Biosynthetically active microsomes isolated from Sinapis alba converted p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and cysteine into S-alkylated p-hydroxyphenylacetothiohydroximate, S-(p-hydroxyphenylacetohydroximoyl)-L-cysteine, the next proposed intermediate in the glucosinolate pathway. The production was shown to be dependent on a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. We searched the genome of A. thaliana for homologues of CYP71E1 (P450ox), the only known oxime-metabolizing enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the evolutionarily related cyanogenic glucosides. By a combined use of bioinformatics, published expression data, and knock-out phenotypes, we identified the cytochrome P450 CYP83B1 as the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in the glucosinolate pathway as evidenced by characterization of the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in the cyanogenic pathway (P450ox) was mutated into a “P450mox” that converted oximes into toxic compounds that the plant detoxified into glucosinolates.