Department of Chemistry


Date of this Version

June 1999


Published in Journal of Molecular Biology 289:5 (June 25, 1999), pp. 1327–1341. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.2835 Copyright © 1999 Academic Press. Used by permission.


Binding of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the “TATA” sequences present in the promoters of eukaryotic class II genes is the first step in the sequential assembly of transcription pre-initiation complexes. Myriad structural changes, including severe bending of the DNA, accompany TBP-TATA complex formation. A detailed kinetic study has been conducted to elucidate the mechanistic details of TBP binding and DNA bending. The binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TBP to the adenovirus major late promoter (AdMLP) was followed in real-time through a range of temperatures and TBP concentrations using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and stopped-flow mixing. The results of association and relaxation kinetics and equilibrium binding experiments were analyzed globally to obtain the complete kinetic and energetic profile of the reaction. This analysis reveals a complex mechanism with two intermediate species, with the DNA in the intermediates apparently bent similarly to the DNA in the final complex. TBP binding and DNA bending occur simultaneously through the multiple steps of the reaction. The first and third steps in this sequential process show nearly identical large increases in both enthalpy and entropy, whereas the middle step is highly exothermic and proceeds with a large decrease in entropy. The first intermediate is significantly populated at equilibrium and resembles the final complex both structurally and energetically. It is postulated that both this intermediate and the final complex bind transcription factor IIB in the second step of pol II pre-initiation complex assembly. A consequence of such a reactive intermediate is that the rate of assembly of transcriptionally competent pre-initiation complexes from bi-directionally bound TBP is greatly increased.

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