Civil Engineering

 

First Advisor

Jiong Hu

Date of this Version

4-2019

Citation

Mamirov, M. 2019. "Using Theoretical And Experimental Particle Packing For Aggregate Gradation Optimization To Reduce Cement Content In Pavement Concrete Mixtures".

Comments

A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Science, Major: Civil Engineering, Under the Supervision of Professor Jiong Hu. Lincoln, Nebraska : April, 2019.

Copyright (c) 2019 Miras Mamirov

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aggregate particle packing optimization and cement reduction on Nebraska slip-form pavement concrete performance. A literature review was conducted to examine different aggregate optimization tools, quality control tests, and historical data of Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) mixtures. It was found that the Modified Toufar Model has good potential in optimizing particle packing and predicting packing degrees. The combined void content test was found to be useful to experimentally justify optimized aggregate gradations. Two specific pavement concrete workability tests, i.e., the Box Test and the VKelly Test, were used to evaluate the effect of cement reduction and optimized aggregate gradation on pavement concrete workability. The Box Test ranking was modified to provide a more detailed and objective evaluation. Analysis of different aggregate combinations has shown that experimental packing from the combined void content test has a high correlation with estimated packing from the Modified Toufar Model. Results showed that when the optimized aggregate gradation is used, cement content can be effectively reduced by up to 1.0 sack (94 lb/yd3) without compromising the fresh properties, mechanical properties, and permeability. Based on the results of free and restrained shrinkage, it was justified that shrinkage and cracking potential can be reduced in optimized concrete mixtures. Freeze/thaw resistance can be slightly improved with optimized mixtures. A mix design improvement procedure considering both theoretical and experimental packing and the minimum excess paste-to-aggregate ratio can be used to design concrete with an optimum cement content.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aggregate particle packing optimization and cement reduction on Nebraska slip-form pavement concrete performance. A literature review was conducted to examine different aggregate optimization tools, quality control tests, and historical data of Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) mixtures. It was found that the Modified Toufar Model has good potential in optimizing particle packing and predicting packing degrees. The combined void content test was found to be useful to experimentally justify optimized aggregate gradations. Two specific pavement concrete workability tests, i.e., the Box Test and the VKelly Test, were used to evaluate the effect of cement reduction and optimized aggregate gradation on pavement concrete workability. The Box Test ranking was modified to provide a more detailed and objective evaluation. Considering one of the goals of the study was to maximize the use of local materials, locally available cementitious materials and aggregates from East and West Nebraska were selected. Analysis of different aggregate combinations has shown that experimental packing from the combined void content test has a high correlation with estimated packing from the Modified Toufar Model. Results also demonstrated that the current aggregate combination is not the optimum gradation and can be improved. The experimental program included in this study consisted of three Phases. Phase 1 focused on obtaining promising aggregate blends by maintaining the standard cement content (564 lb/yd3, 335 kg/m3). Fresh concrete properties were the main criteria to select promising blends. Phase 2 included an evaluation of performance of pavement concrete with cement content reduced by 0.5 sack (47 lb/yd3, 28 kg/m3) steps for other reference and optimized aggregate blends. Results justified that when optimum gradation is used, cement could be reduced up to 94 lb/yd3 (56 kg/m3). Phase 3 is the performance evaluation phase, which included evaluating the reference mix and selected promising mixes for setting time, modulus of elasticity, free shrinkage, restrained shrinkage, and freeze/thaw resistance. Mixtures with reduced cement and optimized aggregate gradation have shown improved freeze/thaw resistance and lower shrinkage rate. Finally, a mix design improvement procedure incorporating theoretical and experimental particle packing and using excess paste-to-aggregates ratio as the control parameter was proposed. To sum up, the study has justified that the Modified Toufar Model and the combined void content test can be useful tools in aggregate gradation optimization. In order to evaluate workability of pavement concrete more accurately, the Box Test ranking was modified based on image analysis of surface and edge quality. It was also proved that mixtures with reduced cement content and optimized aggregate gradation perform better in terms of freeze/thaw resistance and shrinkage.

Advisor: Jiong Hu

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