Civil and Environmental Engineering


Date of this Version



Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2015, 6, 2354–2376.


© 2015 Naghdi et al

Open access



In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of “Green Chemistry”, which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV), gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution) and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs.