Civil and Environmental Engineering


Date of this Version



Liu, K.; Lei, Y.; Li, D. Simultaneous 3D Construction and Imaging of Plant Cells Using Plasmonic Nanoprobe-Assisted Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy. Nanomaterials 2023, 13, 2626. nano13192626


open access.


Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging has emerged as a promising plant cell imaging technique due to its large optical penetration, inherent 3D spatial resolution, and reduced photodamage; exogenous nanoprobes are usually needed for nonsignal target cell analysis. Here, we report in vivo, simultaneous 3D labeling and imaging of potato cell structures using plasmonic nanoprobe-assisted multimodal NLO microscopy. Experimental results show that the complete cell structure can be imaged via the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon luminescence (TPL) when noble metal silver or gold ions are added. In contrast, without the noble metal ion solution, no NLO signals from the cell wall were acquired. The mechanism can be attributed to noble metal nanoprobes with strong nonlinear optical responses formed along the cell walls via a femtosecond laser scan. During the SHG-TPL imaging process, noble metal ions that crossed the cell wall were rapidly reduced to plasmonic nanoparticles with the fs laser and selectively anchored onto both sides of the cell wall, thereby leading to simultaneous 3D labeling and imaging of the potato cells. Compared with the traditional labeling technique that needs in vitro nanoprobe fabrication and cell labeling, our approach allows for one-step, in vivo labeling of plant cells, thus providing a rapid, cost-effective method for cellular structure construction and imaging.