Natural Resources, School of


Date of this Version



2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Catena 85 (2011) 253–266 doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.011


Acidic weathering of the sulfidic Upper Cretaceous Carlile and Pierre Shales in Nebraska has led to the precipitation of the Al sulfate–hydroxide minerals aluminite, alunite, “basaluminite”/felsöbányaite (e.g.,), the aluminum hydroxides gibbsite and bayerite, and the rare Al phosphate hydroxide vashegyite. Kaolinite has also been produced as a result of this acidic weathering. These minerals do not appear as neoformed constituents in any extant soils in the region, and their existence underscores the ability of pyrite oxidation to produce major changes in mineralogy on a Holocene to Recent time scale. Jarosite, hydronium jarosite, gypsum, halotrichite, and melanterite also appear as secondary minerals in the weathered shales. Acidic weathering and the formation of new minerals is extrapedogenic because it occurs well below the limit of modern soil sola. These processes also occur at the edges of major landscape elements and can be considered to have a strong lateral component processes, making them “per latus” processes in our usage.