Date of this Version
United States Patent Vuran et al. Patent No.: US 9,532,118 B2
Systems and methods are disclosed for an underground antenna structure for radiating through a dissipative medium, the antenna structure. The antenna structure includes a dielectric substrate, a feeding structure disposed on the substrate, and one or more electrical conductors. The one or more electrical conductors are disposed on the substrate, oriented, and buried within the dissipative medium. The electrical conductors are also adapted to radiate signals at a frequency in half-space adjacent to the dissipative medium. The adaptation includes a beamwidth state for one or more of the electrical conductors based at least in part on the relative permittivity of the dissipative medium.