Computer Science and Engineering, Department of


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Published in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2006. Copyright 2006 IEEE. Used by permission.


As a hot research topic, many search algorithms have been presented and studied for unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) systems during the past few years. Unfortunately, current approaches either cannot yield good lookup performance, or incur high search cost and system maintenance overhead. The poor search efficiency of these approaches may seriously limit the scalability of current unstructured P2P systems. In this paper, we propose to exploit two-dimensional locality to improve P2P system search efficiency. We present a locality-aware P2P system architecture called Foreseer, which explicitly exploits geographical locality and temporal locality by constructing a neighbor overlay and a friend overlay, respectively. Each peer in Foreseer maintains a small number of neighbors and friends along with their content filters used as distributed indices. By combining the advantages of distributed indices and the utilization of two-dimensional locality, our scheme significantly boosts P2P search efficiency while introducing only modest overhead. In addition, several alternative forwarding policies of Foreseer search algorithm are studied in depth on how to fully exploit the two-dimensional locality.