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Higher-Level Consistencies: Where, When, and How Much
Determining whether or not a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) has a solution is NP-complete. CSPs are solved by inference (i.e., enforcing consistency), conditioning (i.e., doing search), or, more commonly, by interleaving the two mechanisms. The most common consistency property enforced during search is Generalized Arc Consistency (GAC). In recent years, new algorithms that enforce consistency properties stronger than GAC have been proposed and shown to be necessary to solve difficult problem instances. We frame the question of balancing the cost and the pruning effectiveness of consistency algorithms as the question of determining where, when, and how much of a higher-level consistency to enforce during search. To answer the 'where' question, we exploit the topological structure of a problem instance and target high-level consistency where cycle structures appear. To answer the 'when' question, we propose a simple, reactive, and effective strategy that monitors the performance of backtrack search and triggers a higher-level consistency as search thrashes. Lastly, for the question of 'how much,' we monitor the amount of updates caused by propagation and interrupt the process before it reaches a fixpoint. Empirical evaluations on benchmark problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our strategies.
Artificial intelligence|Computer science
Woodward, Robert J, "Higher-Level Consistencies: Where, When, and How Much" (2018). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI13418742.