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Suffix Tree, Minwise Hashing and Streaming Algorithms for Big Data Analysis in Bioinformatics

Sairam Behera, University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Abstract

In this dissertation, we worked on several algorithmic problems in bioinformatics using mainly three approaches: (a) a streaming model, (b) suffix-tree based indexing, and (c) minwise-hashing (minhash) and locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). The streaming models are useful for large data problems where a good approximation needs to be achieved with limited space usage. We developed an approximation algorithm (KmerEstimate) using the streaming approach to obtain a better estimation of the frequency of k-mer counts. A k-mer, a subsequence of length k, plays an important role in many bioinformatics analyses such as genome distance estimation. We also developed new methods that use suffix tree, a trie data structure, for alignment-free, non-pairwise algorithms for a conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) identification problem. We provided two different algorithms: STAG-CNS to identify exact-matched CNSs and DiCE to identify CNSs with mismatches. Using our algorithms, CNSs among various grass species were identified. A different approach was employed for identification of longer CNSs (≥ 100 bp, mostly found in animals). In our new method (MinCNE), the minhash approach was used to estimate the Jaccard similarity. Using also LSH, k-mers extracted from genomic sequences were clustered and CNSs were identified. Another new algorithm (MinIsoClust) that also uses minhash and LSH techniques was developed for an isoform clustering problem. Isoforms are generated from the same gene but by alternative splicing. As the isoform sequences share some exons but in different combinations, regular sequencing clustering methods do not work well. Our algorithm generates clusters for isoform sequences based on their shared minhash signatures. Finally, we discuss de novo transcriptome assembly algorithms and how to improve the assembly accuracy using ensemble approaches. First, we did a comprehensive performance analysis on different transcriptome assemblers using simulated benchmark datasets. Then, we developed a new ensemble approach (Minsemble) for the de novo transcriptome assembly problem that integrates isoform-clustering using minhash technique to identify potentially correct transcripts from various de novo transcriptome assemblers. Minsemble identified more correctly assembled transcripts as well as genes compared to other de novo and ensemble methods.

Subject Area

Computer science|Bioinformatics|Information science|Genetics

Recommended Citation

Behera, Sairam, "Suffix Tree, Minwise Hashing and Streaming Algorithms for Big Data Analysis in Bioinformatics" (2020). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI28259457.
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/dissertations/AAI28259457

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