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Essays on Empowerment, Efficiency and Productivity in Pakistani Agriculture

Muhammad Tahir Ali, University of Nebraska - Lincoln


This dissertation is focused on efficiency and productivity issues in Pakistan. This dissertation analyzes household level agricultural output technical efficiency, the linkage of women empowerment to efficiency, and the calculation of agricultural productivity when resources provided by the government are included in the calculation. The first chapter focuses on the household level measurement of agricultural output technical efficiency and its determinants. Findings show significant room for improvement in household level agricultural output technical efficiency. Further, factors like market exposure, waterlogging, problem-solving skills, access to extension services, and harvest loss have a crucial role in enhancing output technical efficiency. In the second chapter, the linkage between women empowerment and technical efficiency is explored using household survey data. A women empowerment in agriculture index is calculated considering women control and autonomy in the decisions related to production, resources, income, mobility, and time allocation. The stochastic metafrontier model of technical efficiency and women empowerment in agriculture confirms a positive and significant relationship between women empowerment in agriculture and output technical efficiency. The last chapter of the dissertation examines the historical growth and productivity of Pakistani agriculture from the perspective of natural resources (land and water) and public investment in irrigation and research. Calculation of productivity growth in agriculture is carried out with and without government-provided inputs. Data for a long time series (1961-2018) is compiled from online databases and published statistical books of FAO, World Bank, State Bank of Pakistan, International Labor Organization, and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Findings show that, as expected, agricultural productivity growth is lower when all inputs, private and government-provided, are included. Furthermore, there is a decline in total factor productivity growth in recent years which is a matter of concern for the food security of Pakistan.

Subject Area

Agricultural economics

Recommended Citation

Ali, Muhammad Tahir, "Essays on Empowerment, Efficiency and Productivity in Pakistani Agriculture" (2022). ETD collection for University of Nebraska-Lincoln. AAI29322884.