Department of Educational Psychology


Date of this Version



Published in American Journal of Health Behavior 2005; 29(2):127-136. Copyright 2005 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR. Reproduced by permission.


Objective: To examine the role of expectancies in adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST) use. Methods: Self-report measures of students’ ST expectancies, cigarette and ST use, and peer and family tobacco use were collected from a sample of 978 rural high school students. Results: Student expectancy beliefs significantly predicted ST use and intention to try ST in the next year. Student expectancies about ST were influenced by gender, cigarette use, and peer tobacco use. Family-member tobacco use did not strongly affect expectancies. Conclusion: Expectancies play a meaningful role in students’ current and future decisions whether to use ST.