Educational Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Bullying in North American Schools, 2nd ed., chapter 5, p. 45-61.


Copyright 2011, Routledge. Used by permission.


In this chapter, we will review the literature on internalizing problems in youth who are involved in bullying. Involvement in bullying occurs along a continuum (i.e., the bully- victim continuum), meaning that students can participate in multiple roles, including bullying others, being bullied, both bullying others and being bullied, witnessing bullying, and no involvement in bullying. It is clear that involvement in bullying is not defined by static and fixed roles in individuals. It is also evident that students involved in the bully-victim continuum experience greater levels of internalizing problems compared to students who are not involved in bullying. The goal of this chapter is to examine the relation between internalizing problems and the bully-victim continuum, to present longitudinal data on this dynamic, and to provide suggestions for effective mental health interventions for youth involved in bullying. It is our contention that parents, students, teachers, and mental health professionals must work in tandem in order to derail the destructive cycle of bullying and mental health problems.