Department of Educational Psychology


Date of this Version

June 2006


Published in School Psychology Quarterly 21:4 (2006), pp. 396–417. Copyright © 2006 American Psychological Association. Used by permission. “This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.”


This study explored the efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) by assessing objective outcomes and social validity with a sample of students with and without diversity. Diversity characteristics that were investigated included ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family composition, maternal education level, and language spoken in the home. Behavioral change, goal attainment, acceptability, satisfaction, and perceptions of efficacy of the CBC model were measured with 125 students representing varying levels of diversity, and 192 target behaviors. Data were collected across 8 years of a federally funded training program across two states. Findings indicated that CBC–mediated interventions yielded generally high effect sizes regardless of the presence of diversity or the number of diverse characteristics exhibited. Social validity measures also yielded very favorable results, suggesting that participants (teachers and family members, including those who experienced some form of diversity) found the procedures positive. Implications for research and practice are presented.