Department of Educational Psychology


Date of this Version



Journal of Teacher Education 50:1 (1999)


Copyright © 1999 Vicki L. Wise, Amy N. Spiegel, and Roger H. Bruning. Published by SAGE Publications. Used by permission.


Systemic reform has been a key element of the mathematics and science educational agenda for the past decade. Systemic reform proponents advocate emphasizing mathemat-ics and science from kindergarten through l2th grade; adopting new math and science ed-ucation standards; providing ongoing professional development for teachers (Frechtling, Sharp, Carey, & Vaden-Kiernan, 1995); and aligning policy, practice, and assessment pro-cedures. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has supported the development of sys-temic reform by funding statewide, urban, and rural systemic initiatives to improve K–12 mathematics and science education throughout the United States (Fitzsimmons & Kerpel-man, 1994).