Educational Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Published in The Counseling Psychologist 44:7 (2016), pp. 1025—1049. doi: 10.1177/0011000015609046


Copyright © 2016 Stephanie L. Budge, Jayden L. Thai, Elliot A. Tebbe, Kimberly A. S. Howard. Published by SAGE Journals. Used by permission.


The present study examined patterns in trans individuals’ multiple identities and mental health outcomes. Cluster 1 (socioeconomic and racial privilege; n = 239) was characterized by individuals who identified as trans women or crossdressers, lesbian, bisexual, or questioning; had associates degrees; reported household incomes of $60,000 or more a year; and were non-Latino White. Cluster 2 (educational privilege; n = 191) was characterized by individuals who identified as trans men or genderqueer, gay, or queer; had a bachelor’s degree; reported household incomes of $10,000 or less a year; and were people of color. There was a pattern of individuals in Cluster 1 who identified with two privileged identities (identifying as White and having higher household incomes), whereas individuals in Cluster 2 identified only formal education as a privilege. Individuals in Cluster 2 reported statistically significant levels of anxiety. Implications of these results for future research and clinical practice are examined.