Educational Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



the elementary school journal volume 115, number 3 Parent Involvement Page 384-406


© 2015 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.


The purpose of this study was to clarify equivocal findings in the parent-involvement literature and examine novel interactions in a New Zealand context. Specifically, this study tested direct effects of school year, parent education, family structure, and child gender on parent involvement in elementary school. In addition, interactions between parent, family, and child characteristics were explored as moderators on the relation of school year and parent involvement. Participants were 421 primary caregivers of children attending their first through final years of elementary school on New Zealand’s South Island. Structural equation models were used to detect direct and interaction effects. Findings revealed statistically significant direct effects for several parent, family, and child characteristics examined. No interaction effects were found. Implications and future research directions are discussed.