Date of this Version
Infection, Genetics and Evolution 103 (2022) 105333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105333
Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellow fever mosquito, is also an important vector of dengue and Zika viruses, and an invasive species in North America. Aedes aegypti inhabits tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world and in North America is primarily distributed throughout the southern US states and Mexico. The northern range of Ae. aegypti is limited by cold winter months and establishment in these areas has been mostly unsuccessful. However, frequent introductions of Ae. aegypti to temperate, non-endemic areas during the warmer months can lead to seasonal activity and disease outbreaks. Two Ae. aegypti incursions were reported in the late summer of 2019 into York, Nebraska and Moab, Utah. These states had no history of established populations of this mosquito and no evidence of previous seasonal activity. We genotyped a subset of individuals from each location at 12 microsatellite loci and ~ 14,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers to determine their genetic affinities to other populations worldwide and investigate their potential source of introduction. Our results support a single origin for each of the introductions from different sources. Aedes aegypti from Utah likely derived from Tucson, Arizona, or a nearby location. Nebraska specimen results were not as conclusive, but point to an origin from southcentral or southeastern US. In addition to an effective, efficient, and sustainable control of invasive mosquitoes, such as Ae. aegypti, identifying the potential routes of introduction will be key to prevent future incursions and assess their potential health threat based on the ability of the source population to transmit a particular virus and its insecticide resistance profile, which may complicate vector control.